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We are nomads, yet not for long.

We live below the Amu-Darya River and around the grasslands of the Karakum, yet not for long.

Our neighbours are few, but not to be trusted. To the north and west, the Sauromatae wander, kin to the Skythians. Their eyes are turned to their south and west, but they might find lands to conquer in the east too. Many times have we contested with them for grazing rights and they have not forgotten our sending them flying back across the Amu-Darya. To the south and east, the Seleukid Empire stretches along our border. Our young warriors have made many forays into the lands of the southerners, returning with much loot.Even out brothers, the Dahae wait for us to show weakness, ever ready to pounce. We will lead them to victory, but trust them? Never!

If you are to take on the Seleukid Empire, and one day you will have to, you must attack when the time is right. If the Seleukids have no enemies, except you, they will send their great phalanx- armies to our lands. If they are at war on multiple fronts however, they might not have enough soldiers to spare, so we can grab more land from them. And the Seleukid Empire is wide and the eyes of its rulers can only see so far. Their subjects do not hold fast to their vows of loyalty and this will be our chance. Revolts will flare up in its distant satrapies, some which conveniently lie near us and could be exploited to our advantage. And rumours from the East have reached our ears, that might benefit us. The Greek satrap of Baktria lusts for a kingship of his own. And he has soldiers enough to break away from Seleukeia. Should these two ‘Successors’ fight each other we can profit. Their armies will be depleted and some of their provinces will have fewer defenders.

As a leader of the Pahlav, you will command different troops. The clans provide skilled mounted archers, and infantry levy, while the nobility among our people will provide you with heavily armoured cataphracts, trained to charge the enemy knee-to-knee. In battle, your horse archers will pepper the enemy with arrows, probing for any weak spots in their battle line for your cataphracts to charge through.

Our future is to the south, in the rich lands of Persia. Decades ago Iskander came from the west, defeating the massed host of Persia in two big battles and putting an end to the once mighty Persian Empire. The people to the south, might not look at us with favourable eyes, indeed their former kings called us Dahae, or robbers, but we share more with them, than the Greeks do. If the Seleukid Empire collapses, they might be 'persuaded' to accept a Pahlavan king who brings order, and restores the temples of their fathers, and brings honour to the teachings of the good prophet Zarathustra. Indeed, worship of Ahura-Mazda might benefit a Pahlav King, or perhaps...a Pahlav Shahanshah? Without armies, the Persians won't object.

Maybe you can be a new Kurush, a ‘Pahlavan’ Iskander. Follow in the footsteps of the conquerors. The lands to the south and east are there for the taking, you just have to know.


In 247 BC, Aršak, or Arsaces as he was later known, leader of the Parni, a branch of the Dahae Scyths, was crowned king. This name may very well be his clan title rather than his given name. As we see in later Parthian times, the tradition of having a 'family' or tribal name was quite common among the Parthian nobles. Families of Suren, Karen, Espahbad, Naudar, and other Parthian noble families all carried their personal names as well as the above family names. Additionally, the tradition of having a regal name was also common from the Achaemenid times, as almost all Achaemenid emperors after Darius II seem to have chosen a dynastic name upon their accession.

It was he who led his people south and overthrew the Seleukid governor of Parthia in 238 BC, this same governor, who was himself in revolt against his overlords. He would establish a kingdom that would last for almost 500 years. At the height of their power, the Parthians were second only to Rome and were the only civilized nation able to stand up to her.

Parthia's beginnings were not easy. Arsaces I, initially controlled little more than Parthia, and neighbouring Hyrcania and they faced vigorous Seleukid attempts to recapture those lost dominions. In 226 BCE and again in 210 BCE, the Seleukids invaded in force. The Parthians retreated before them, only to return seizing yet more land when Seleukid attention fatally drifted towards the Hellenic western part of their empire. By the mid century things had changed. After a long war, the Parthian king Mithradates I had conquered Media and invaded Mesopotamia. This time, the Seleukid counterattack was fought and totally defeated. The Seleukid king Demetrios II, was captured and held prisoner, and upon his death Mithradates I ruled over Parthia, Hyrcania, Media, Babylonia, Assyria, Elymais and Persis. Parthia was now to be a world power.

When the Parthian kingdom was founded in the mid 3rd century BC, it was made up of a small Scythian tribe, the Parni, and it’s army was relatively small consisting chiefly of horse archers and the better armoured tribal chieftains. These skilled riders were served as part of the tribal host only in times of war. When the war was over, these warriors returned home with their loot to their everyday lives. As a result, their concepts of war was confined to raids and counter raids. Through out this period the Parthians remained a semi- nomadic people who made their living from horse and cattle breeding. However, contact with Persian style of warfare and the changing needs of a society no longer based on a nomadic lifestyle brought new concepts of warfare. This settled existence not only eroded their steppe culture but probably caused a rapid erosion of their horse and archery skills as well.

Theoretically the Parthian king could call upon all those within the realm to serve in his armies. The Arascid king's major stumbling block was his own Azad nobles. The royal council was comprised the representatives of the Parthian clans, towns and vassal states. The only obligation some of these vassal states had to the Arascid dynasty was supplying troops for military service. However this council was effectively controlled by the lords of the Seven Great Clans. As a result the kings relied heavily on their own hereditary lands for the core of their armies. This was supplemented by Sakae nomadic mercenaries and those Nobles of the realm with a vested interest of advancing their fortunes by such service.

Parthian armies had to operate in all types of terrain and climates from the hot flatlands of Aryavarta which would later be called India, the arid central plateau of Iran, the cold northern steppes and the high mountains of Armenia and Gandhara. Their enemies varied from slow-moving pikemen of the Hellenic armies to their nimble and swift kin from the eastern steppe. Parthian military thinking was therefore based on the ideas of mobility, adaptability and self-sufficiency, it could be no other way. The plan of any battle was the Cataphract charge, a massed attack knee-to-knee by heavy cavalry, the light horse archers supported this by probing for weak points to be exploited with concentrated archery. The archers did terrible damage to massed troops and this would force the enemy to disperse. If they did so, they left themselves exposed to the charge of the heavy Cataphracts. With the light and heavy cavalry deployed, the Pahlavan cavalry was able to bring down of one form of attack, or the other as the situation dictated. It was this tactic that shattered the Roman legions at the battle of Carrhae.

The tribal host formed the bulk of the Parthian army and would have provided the bulk of the Hamspah or levies, mounted archers and the infantry levy. Each clan Family mustered under their Wuzurgan grandees and the lesser Azadan leaders, bringing with them retainers from their lands and these would fight together in the same units. They used probably the best weapon for the horseman, which was the composite horse bow. This was similar to the simple bow but used multiple types of wood, horn and sinew to produce a stronger bow with a greater draw weight, the force built up in the string that will propel the arrow forward to its target.

The wars between the Greeks and the Persians and final Alexandrian conquest showed the Pahlava that lightly armed infantry could not stop heavy, well-trained, infantry of the type employed by the Greeks and later Romans. They themselves had a healthy contempt for such light infantry in their many raids of more civilized lands. These heavy infantry could only be countered with heavily armed cataphracts and tough veteran horse archers able to cause disorder in the massed ranks and then attacking vulnerable points with archery and lance. This was a lesson they learned well and would prove on the field of battle. The Romans and Greeks came to respect the Parthian in a way they never respected the Persian.

The Parthian Kingdom was smaller than that of the Achaemenid Persians, and closer in many ways to later european feudal states. There was for example no standing army, just as in feudal europe. There were of course the garrisons of the Hellenic Polis and vital forts were garrisoned. The armed retinues of the Wuzurgan grandees, the Azadan minor nobility, Zandbed and Dehbed tribal chiefs, along with the local kings, Šahrdaran, and princes of royal blood, the Waspuhragan.

The Great King as Sar-Xwaday, Overlord, appealed to his subordinate kings, the Šahrdaran, the Azad nobles, garrison commanders, and most importantly the tribal lords to muster what they could and bring them to an appointed place at a given time. The assembled host would be placed under the command of a Spahbed or general, trusted by the Great King. The core of the army, or Spad was the feudal or tribal nobility. Accustomed to hard riding from an early age and skilled in archery and skirmishing, the Pahlavan cavalry would come to be known as something to fear. Their name echoes in eternity as the term Pahlavan, means Hero in Persian.

The Pahlavan nation was ever under threat, and they never suffered for a lack of enemies. The North Iranian nomads, the Dahae, Sakae, and Sauromatae constantly threatened the eastern borders while in the west first the Seleukids and then the Romans were ever ready for full scale war. Few nations have ever faced such a combination of enemies and finding an army that would both was no easy matter. Rapid mobility was essential for no slow moving army could possibly match the light cavalry of the nomads to the north. Infantry were not very useful in such a situation and not worth what Romans or Greeks paid for them. The answer was the Asabaran, pronounced Asavaran in Parthian. The Parthians did have foot soldiers and when large numbers of Greeks or Romans were captured they had no hesitation in putting them to use. They could however never be more than a small part of the Parthian army. They could not afford to maintain a massive army of heavy infantry to counter the nomadic cavalry, nor could the Romans, who when faced with this same situation, took to the same solution.

The mainstay of the infantry were foot archers. These foot archers almost certainly represented the poorer elements of the various infantry levies of Parthia. The tradition of mounted archery in Parthia and the northern steppe peoples makes it almost inevitable that a massed levy would produce significant numbers of foot archers as well.

When Persia was conquered by Alexander the Great, Alexander originally attempt to bring a fusion of Persian and Greek culture. However this attempt at a fusion was to collapse upon his death, and lead to the alienation of the Persian elite and the rejection of Greek culture by the Persians. In Persia kingship and religion were tied together in a way that the Greeks poorly understood. The world had been created by Ahura Mazda and it was he who ordained the monarch. There were those who responded to the appeal of Hellenism but as elsewhere it was associated with a secular spirit repulsive to most near eastern peoples. However, it is also true that Alexander destroyed Zoroastrian sanctuaries, persecuted priests and destroyed religious writings. In doing so the 'accursed Alexander' created an army of priests who saw Hellenism as the enemies. In addition to their religious duties, these priests served as judges, tax collectors and scribes. They were in a unique position to do harm to the Greek cause in Iran.

Traditional Zoroastrianism was revived slowly under the Parthian, or Arsacid, dynasty, which ruled from about 250 bc to ad 224. By the time of the Sassanid dynasty, from ad 224 to 651, Zoroastrianism had become the popular religion among most groups in Iran and Central Asia and was practiced from the Middle East to the western border of China.

Their empire began to decline in the 2nd century AD, as Parthia was chronically weakened by internal struggle, and the rebellion of Ardashir of Persis in 220 AD sounded its death knell. Such bloody conflicts were not uncommon within the ruling Arsacid family and the loyalty of the great noble lords was often dubious. The last Parthian king, Artabanos IV, was killed in the battle of Hormuzdagan in 224 AD and Ardashir was crowned as the first Sassanid king. The first acts of the Sassanid dynasty was the systematic destruction of everything Parthian and under the hammer and fire of Sassanid fury went the records of what had once been a proud nation.[1]


The Pahlava starts out as a nomadic faction, but already transforming into a more settled one. Their armies are mostly made up of horse archers, where a small contingent are heavily armored cavalry. As time goes, the Pahlava will get more heavily armoured cataphracts, even armored horse archers and should they expand into Seleukid territores the Pahlava can raise infantry of improved quality from the subject populations.

EB1 UC Pah Parthian Spearmen Gund-i Nizagan (Parthian Spearmen) EB1 UC Pah Parthian Horse-Archers Shivatir-i Pahlavanig (Parthian Horse-Archers) EB1 UC Pah Parthian Noble Medium Cavalry Dehbed Asavara (Parthian Noble Medium Cavalry)
EB1 UC Pah Parthian Armored Horse Archers Zradha Shivatir (Parthian Armoured Horse-Archers) EB1 UC Pah Parthian Cataphracts Zradha Pahlavans (Parthian Cataphracts) EB1 UC Pah Parthian Noble Cataphracts Azad Asavaran (Parthian Noble Cataphracts)
EB1 UC Pah Early Parthian Bodyguard Spahbade Pahlavanig (Early Parthian Bodyguard) EB1 UC Pah Parthian Late Armored Elite Cataphracts Grivpanvar (Parthian Late Armored Elite Cataphracts) EB1 UC Pah Parthian Late Bodyguards Sahigan Pahr (Parthian Late Bodyguards)
EB1 UC Pah Hellenic Native Spearmen Pantodapoi (Hellenic Native Spearmen) EB1 UC Pah Eastern Skirmishers Gund-i Palta (Eastern Skirmishers) EB1 UC Pah Eastern Slingers Shuban-i Fradakhshana (Eastern Slingers)
EB1 UC Pah Persian Archers Thanvare Payahdag (Persian Archers) EB1 UC Pah Persian Archer-Spearmen Nizagan-i Eranshahr (Persian Archer-Spearmen) EB1 UC Pah Eastern Axemen Tabargane Eranshahr (Eastern Axemen)
EB1 UC Pah Dahae Skirmisher Cavalry Daha Rog Baexdzhyn Aefsad (Dahae Skirmisher Cavalry) EB1 UC Pah Dahae Riders Daha Baexdzhyntae (Dahae Riders) EB1 UC Pah Dahae Noble Cavalry Daha Uazdaettae (Dahae Noble Cavalry)
EB1 UC Pah Mardian Archers Marda Shivatir (Mardian Archers) EB1 UC Pah Hyrkanian Hillmen Verkhana Kofyaren (Hyrkanian Hillmen) EB1 UC Pah Persian Hoplites Kardakâ Arteshtâr (Persian Hoplites)
EB1 UC Pah Median Medium Cavalry Asabaran-i Madaen (Median Medium Cavalry) EB1 UC Pah Arachosian Skirmisher Cavalry Asabaran-i Hauravatish (Arachosian Skirmisher Cavalry) EB1 UC Pah Baktrian Light Infantry Kofyaren-i Kavakaza (Baktrian Light Infantry)
EB1 UC Pah Hellenic Native Phalanx Pantodapoi Phalangitai (Hellenic Native Phalanx) EB1 UC Pah Parthian Hellenic Infantry Parthohellenikoi Thureophoroi (Parthian Hellenic Infantry) EB1 UC Pah Indian Elephants Elephantes Indikoi (Indian Elephants)





Pah Victory

Pahlava Victory Screen







  1. Europa Barbarorum Pahlava History
  2. Europa Barbarorum Pahlava Units
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